The EU’s accounts haven’t been signed off for years.
Auditors say the accounts are accurate and have been since 2007. But they record significant errors in how money is paid, and this has been the case since 1995.
Both sides have a point. The EU’s Court of Auditors regularly “signs off”—in its own words—the reliability of the accounts themselves, and has given them a clean bill of health for the last eight years.
But it has consistently found significant errors in how the money is paid out since it began giving opinions in 1995.
Ultimately, it depends on what you think the term “signed off” implies about the accounts.
Two opinions, not one
The European Court of Auditors checks the EU’s accounts and delivers verdicts on them annually. It actually gives two different opinions on them: whether they’re accurate and reliable, and to what extent there’s evidence that money is being received or paid in error.
The auditors give a on the accuracy and reliability of the accounts when they present a “of the EU’s finances and follow the rules of financial reporting. This has been the case since 2007.
If they’re mostly fine, but have some problems, the auditors give a “qualified” opinion. This was the case before 2007. If they have extensive problems, they give an “adverse” opinion on the reliability of the accounts. This has never happened.
The same opinions are delivered on the ‘regularity’ of the accounts—whether they’re free from significant errors. The Court of Auditors has always given an adverse opinion on this ever since it started giving opinions in 1995.
So what does all this say about the EU’s accounts? The numbers accurately reflect what’s actually happened, it’s just that some of it shouldn’t have happened in the first place.
Accurate in 2015, but errors persist
In 2015 the EU spent €145 billion—or about £105 billion, at the average exchange rate for 2015. That's a few billion less than what the UK spent on the NHS. The Court said the EU’s accounts in 2015: “present, in all material respects, a true and fair view of the EU’s financial results for the year … We were therefore able to give a clean opinion on the reliability of the accounts (‘signed off’)”.
But it did find that 3.8% of EU spending was subject to error. As long as the estimated error is above a threshold of 2%, it’s considered “material”. 3.8% is slightly lower than the estimated level of error in previous years.
Error is not always the same as fraud or waste
Just because some money is paid in error doesn’t mean people all the people involved have deliberately tried to defraud the EU.
A small minority of the cases that the auditors look at each year involve suspected fraud. The UK’s Public Accounts Committee of MPs has concluded for years that the complexity of the EU’s spending programmes, which creates misunderstandings, contributes towards these errors.
It also doesn’t necessarily mean the money was ‘wasted’, just that it wasn’t paid out according to the rules. One way to run afoul of the rules, for instance, is to award an EU-funded contract directly without holding a proper bidding process. Even though the rules haven’t been followed, it's not always the case that another firm would have been able to put in a lower bid.
“Our estimate of the level of error is not a measure of fraud, inefficiency or waste. It is an estimate of the money that should not have been paid out because it was not used in accordance with the applicable rules and regulations.”
The most common type of error is when people claim for costs they’re ineligible for, followed by procurement errors like the one discussed above.
It’s not all the EU’s fault, and it gets some of the money back
In the UK’s case, the Public Accounts Committee has criticised the government for designing programmes which add to the complexity of EU spending, and showing a “distinct lack of urgency” in tackling that complexity and reducing the penalties the UK needs to pay back to the EU.
Isn't it nice to have the whole picture?
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