A Covid-19 vaccine “Q&A” sheet has been circulating on social media. It presents a checklist of claims about the vaccine, alongside ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answers. Some of the claims are inaccurate and suggest the mRNA vaccines may be dangerous.
The Covid-19 vaccines have been tested to the same high standards as any vaccine would be. While side effects are common, these are overwhelmingly minor and pass within a few days.
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“Are the MRNA vaccines experimental? Yes”
While these are the first mRNA vaccines to be rolled out to the general public, the technology behind mRNA vaccines has been developed over a number of years.
In the UK, two of the three approved Covid-19 vaccines , the Pfizer vaccine and the Moderna vaccine - use mRNA technology.
Both mRNA Covid-19 vaccines have passed the same safety tests and procedures any other vaccine would.
Many vaccines work by introducing a weakened or inactive virus or bacteria into the body which triggers the immune system to produce antibodies in response. These antibodies then protect the body if it comes into contact with the real thing.
Covid-19 mRNA vaccines go one step back in the process. Once inside the body, the mRNA works to build the spike proteins on the surface of the Covid-19 virus. The body then responds by producing antibodies which attack those proteins.This means that if it is later infected, the body will be able to generate a faster and more effective immune response to the virus.
“Have they been safety tested on animals? No”
This is untrue. The Moderna, Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines have all been tested on animals.
The Associated Press reports this confusion may have arisen because Moderna and Pfizer were given permission to test their vaccines on human trial participants concurrently with animal tests. Ordinarily animal tests are done before human trials.
“Have they been subject to medium or long term safety testing on humans? No”
This depends on how you define medium or long term. The vaccines have been trialled on humans since mid-2020, so we do have over six months of safety data for each vaccine. Pfizer and Moderna have said they will continue monitoring their trialists for safety.
“Are the effects of the vaccines reversible? No”
It’s unclear what’s meant by “reversible”.
All the vaccines are intended to protect people against Covid-19. It is unclear how long that protection will last, and so in that sense the effects of the vaccines may wear off over time.
The vaccines can cause side effects but the vast majority of these, such as pain around the injection site, fatigue or nausea, are mild and pass within a few days.
The evidence suggesting vaccinations can cause more serious side effects resulting in permanent damage is far more limited. For example in the Pfizer trial, the proportion of people who experienced a serious “adverse event” after vaccination with the Pfizer vaccine was 0.6% and among the group of people who received the placebo it was 0.5%.
Vaccine safety is continually monitored. People in the UK who suspect they have experienced a side effect due to a vaccine are encouraged to report this to the Yellow Card scheme. These reports are then investigated to determine whether there is any link to the vaccines.
The Yellow Card website says: “For all COVID-19 vaccines, the overwhelming majority of reports relate to injection-site reactions (sore arm for example) and generalised symptoms such as ‘flu-like’ illness, headache, chills, fatigue (tiredness), nausea (feeling sick), fever, dizziness, weakness, aching muscles, and rapid heartbeat. Generally, these happen shortly after the vaccination and are not associated with more serious or lasting illness.”
“Will the vaccines stop me getting COVID? No”
All the vaccines available significantly reduce the risk of developing Covid-19.
Studies have found that people given one dose of the Pfizer vaccine have a 70% reduced risk of becoming infected, both with and without symptoms, rising to 85% after the second dose. This data comes from healthcare workers who were tested for Covid every two weeks, regardless of whether they had symptoms.
Data in adults over 70 shows that both the Pfizer and the AstraZeneca vaccines are between 60-70% effective against symptomatic disease around a month after the first dose, and 85-90% after the second dose of Pfizer (this particular study didn’t look at the effect after two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine).
“Will the vaccines stop me spreading COVID? No”
Evidence suggests the vaccines also stop the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus which causes Covid-19.
The evidence suggests that one dose of either the AstraZeneca or Pfizer vaccines significantly reduces your chances of passing on the virus to members of your household, if you do catch it.
Initial research, covering over a million contacts in the UK, has found that people who became infected three weeks after their first vaccination were between 38% and 49% less likely to pass the virus onto household contacts. This protection appeared from around two weeks after the vaccination, and was regardless of age.
“Will the vaccines allow me to stop wearing a mask? No”
Current UK government guidelines still encourage vaccinated people to follow the same rules as unvaccinated people when it comes to wearing a mask. From 19 July, the legal requirement to wear a face mask in indoor settings or public transport in England ended regardless of vaccination status. Businesses, including transport operators, can still ask their employees and customers to wear face coverings.
“Do the vaccines contain genetically modified organisms (GMOs)? Yes”
Some of the vaccines do contain GMOs. For example, the AstraZeneca vaccine uses a modified version of a virus, which carries the genetic instructions for producing the coronavirus spike protein into human cells, without replicating itself and infecting the body.
“Do the Astra-Zeneka [sic] & Johnson & Johnson vaccines contain aborted human or monkey cells? Yes”
Some vaccines use a virus as the active ingredient. As mentioned, for example, the AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine uses a virus.
Viruses need cells to replicate, so vaccine manufacturers use cells to manufacture enough of the virus for their vaccines. For example, the influenza vaccine is often made using chicken eggs.
For the AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine, the virus is replicated using modified copies of cells taken from an aborted foetus in the 1970s. This cell line is called HEK-293 and we’ve written about it before.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine uses a different virus grown in cells taken from an aborted foetus in 1985.
So both vaccines are produced using copies of copies of these cells, rather than the original foetal cells themselves.
And while the cells are used to grow the virus, they are filtered out of the vaccine, meaning neither vaccine “contain[s] aborted human...cells.”
It’s unclear where the reference to monkey cells comes from, but it may be a misinterpretation of the fact that the virus used in the AstraZeneca vaccine is an altered version of a virus that typically infects chimpanzees. This doesn’t mean it comes from chimpanzees.
“Do doctors have concerns about the mRNA vaccine’s long term effect on fertility? Yes”
The Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (RCOG) says that there is “no evidence” to suggest that the Covid-19 vaccines affect fertility. Similar statements have been issued by the British Fertility Association, the NHS and Public Health England.
The RCOG also states that there is no biologically plausible mechanism by which the vaccine would cause fertility problems.
The RCOG and the NHS recommend pregnant women get vaccinated.
We’ve written more about fertility and vaccines.
“Is there a risk of auto immune disease, strokes, seizures, convulsions or other side effects? Yes”
As mentioned, many people may experience side effects with Covid-19 vaccines but these are overwhelmingly mild and pass within a few days.
Vaccine safety is continually monitored. People in the UK who suspect they have experienced a side effect due to a vaccine are encouraged to report this to the Yellow Card scheme. As we’ve said, these are then investigated to determine whether the vaccine was the cause or not.
In the US there is a similar system for reporting suspected side effects called VAERS.
We’ve written more about claims linking vaccinations and specific side effects.
“Have the vaccines caused any deaths or injuries? Yes”
When this article was originally published, no deaths had been directly attributed to Covid-19 vaccinations. As mentioned, in the UK, deaths and side effects can be reported to the Yellow Card scheme for investigation.
Since then, and as of 18 August 2021, there have been 72 deaths in the UK from a certain extremely rare type of blood clot, occurring alongside a low level of platelets (a component of the blood), following vaccination with the AstraZeneca vaccine. The MHRA has concluded there is a possible link between the two and advised that people under the age of 40 should receive a different vaccine.
The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation says: “Adverse events following the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine are extremely rare and, for the vast majority of people, the benefits of preventing serious illness and death far outweigh any risks.”
“Are the vaccine manufacturers liable for injuries or deaths caused by the vaccines? No”
In the UK the vaccines have gone through all the normal safety checks and received temporary authorisation to be rolled out, but they have not been fully “licensed”. This means that vaccine manufacturers are free from some types of liability.
However manufacturers aren’t fully protected. For example, the UK government says that manufacturers will still be liable if their vaccines do not meet safety standards or are “defective”.
“Are there doctors and scientists recommending people NOT to take it? Yes”
Some doctors and scientists are recommending people not to take Covid-19 vaccines.
Far more doctors, health professionals and public health bodies are recommending the vaccine and they have been found to be safe and effective.
The information included in this article contains the latest evidence and official guidance available at the time it was written. This is not a substitute for medical advice. If you require specific medical advice please consult your GP or midwife.