Total health spending in England is about £120 billion and is expected to rise by almost £5 billion by 2020, taking inflation into account.
The NHS is facing severe financial pressures, with trusts across the country spending more than they’re bringing in. The NHS is also being asked to find £22 billion in savings by 2020, in order to keep up with rising demand and an ageing population.
Health experts from the Nuffield Trust, Health Foundation and King’s Fund say current spending plans aren’t enough to maintain standards of care, meet rising patient demand and deliver new services such as the so-called “seven-day NHS”.
They also cite concerns that there isn’t enough money going into social care, which we’ve looked at elsewhere.
The government’s “£10 billion” spending claim can’t be taken at face value
The government claims that it’s putting an extra £10 billion into the NHS, more than NHS executives have asked for.
This isn’t as generous as it sounds, and the chief executive of NHS England has directly contradicted the claim that it’s getting more than it requested. The Health Select Committee has also criticised the government for its repeated use of this figure, as have the Nuffield Trust, Health Foundation and King’s Fund.
First of all, the pot of money has been redefined.
The government’s claim is just about the NHS England budget, rather than total health spending in England which includes things like public health, education and training. Funding outside the budget of NHS England is set to fall by almost £5 billion over this parliament.
Secondly, the head of NHS England, Simon Stevens, has said the service isn’t getting more than it asked for. He told the Public Accounts Committee of MPs recently:
“It's right that by 2020 NHS England will be getting an extra £10 billion over the course of six years. I don't think that's the same as saying we're getting more than we asked for over five years because it was a five year forward view [that the NHS set out] not a six year forward view.
“And over and above that we've obviously had a spending review negotiation in the meantime and that has set the NHS budget for the next three years.
“It's a matter of fact ... that like probably every part of the public service, we got less that we asked for in that process. And so I think it would be stretching it to say that the NHS has got more than it asked for.”
He also said last year that the money the government has committed is at the lowest end of a range of options the NHS set out.
For it to be enough, the service also needs to see “continuing access to social care” and “enhanced effort on prevention and public health”. Public health spending is expected to fall and spending on social care is set to fall short of what experts think is needed.
In 2015 the NHS itself highlighted these two areas as needing improvement.
That said, the government is ‘front loading’ the spending increases over this parliament—meaning that more money will be made available in the early years, and comparatively less in the later years.
At present, funding in 2018/19 isn’t expected to grow at all, taking inflation into account. Rises—or lack of—like these are “inadequate” and “will not be enough to maintain standards of care, meet rising demand from patients and deliver the transformation of services outlined in the NHS five year forward view” according to experts.
NHS England budget increasing, public health budget falling
The amount of money the government spends on health in England is roughly equivalent to the Department of Health’s budget, which was about £116 billion in 2015/16. That’s about 16% of what the government spends each year.
Within that pot of money, the government spent about £101 billion on NHS England, which oversees the vast majority of spending, with the rest going to things like public health, education and training.
The NHS England budget is expected to rise by about £9.6 billion over this parliament, taking inflation into account. Meanwhile spending on the other areas is set to fall by £4.9 billion.
That means, overall, health spending in England is set to rise by £4.7 billion over this parliament.
The NHS faces a £30 billion funding gap by 2020
In 2013, NHS England said it faced a funding gap of £30 billion by the end of the decade, even if government spending kept up in line with inflation. So it needed that much more to deliver care to a growing and ageing population, assuming it made no savings itself.
A year later the NHS laid out plans for how it might handle this gap. One ambitious option was that the NHS itself would find £22 billion in savings, leaving the other £8 billion to be filled by the government.
The Conservatives said in their 2015 election manifesto they would provide that £8 billion in government, and expect the other £22 billion in savings from the NHS. The Nuffield Trust, writing in our election report, said this still left unanswered questions on funding:
“£8bn is the bare minimum to maintain existing standards of care for a growing and ageing population …
“improving productivity on this scale [£22 billion] would be unprecedented”
The new Conservative government followed through on the commitment and started claiming it was giving £10 billion, giving the NHS what it asked for, and more.
NHS providers are in deficit
About two-thirds of NHS trusts—which provide secondary care to patients who’ve been referred there by a GP—are in the red.
Collectively they finished last year (2015/16) with a deficit of about £2.5 billion. They’d have had a bigger shortfall without measures (£) taken by NHS England and the Department of Health to shore up the finances for that year.
The size of the deficit has been growing—in 2014-15 the overall deficit was £574 million.
Local deficits end up costing the government money. The Department of Health and NHS England put in £2.4 billion in extra financial support for trusts last year, to support their deficits.